Parmenides

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1. WHO WAS PARMENIDES?

Parmenides of Elea (fl. late sixth or early fifth century BC) was a pre-Socratic Greek philosopher who was the founder of the Eleatic school of philosophy and metaphysics or ontology, and has influenced the whole history of Western philosophy.

The single known work by Parmenides is a poem, On Nature, only fragments of which survive, containing the first sustained argument in the history of philosophy. In it, Parmenides prescribes two views of reality. In “the way of truth” (a part of the poem), he explains how all reality is one, change is impossible, and existence is timeless, uniform, and necessary. In “the way of opinion”, Parmenides explains the world of appearances, in which one’s sensory faculties lead to conceptions which are false and deceitful, yet he does offer a cosmology.

Parmenides philosophy has been explained with the slogan “whatever is is, and what is not cannot be”. He is also credited with the phrase out of nothing nothing comes. He argues that “A is not” can never be thought or said truthfully, and thus despite appearances everything exists as one, giant, unchanging thing. This is generally considered one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of being, and has been contrasted with Heraclitus’s statement that “No man ever steps into the same river twice” as one of the first digressions into the philosophical concept of becoming.

Parmenides has traditionally been viewed as a pivotal figure in the history of philosophy: one who challenged the physical systems of his predecessors and set forth for his successors the metaphysical criteria any successful system must meet.

parmenides-of-elea-1068x583.jpg2. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL DIALECTIC OF PARMENIDEAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Essential Dialectic of Parmenidean Philosophy is:

{Logos ⇆ Appearance-Reality ⇅ Thought-Being} ↻ Opinion-Truth

The Essential Dialectic of Parmenidean Philosophy is the Logos, Appearance-Reality, Thought-Being, Opinion-Truth Dialectic because ….

3. WHAT IS THE INTERMEDIARY DIALECTIC OF PARMENIDEAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Intermediary Dialectic of Parmenidean Philosophy is:

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4. WHAT IS THE COMPLETE DIALECTIC OF PARMENIDEAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Complete Dialectic of Parmenidean Philosophy is:

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