Aristotle

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1. WHO WAS ARISTOTLE?

Aristotle (384–322 BC) was an Ancient Greek philosopher, the founder of the Lyceum and the Peripatetic school of philosophy and Aristotelian tradition. Along with his teacher Plato, he has been called the “Father of Western Philosophy”.

Aristotle’s writings cover many subjects – including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theater, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics and government. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him, and it was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry. As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.

Aristotle’s views on physical science profoundly shaped medieval scholarship. Their influence extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics. Some of Aristotle’s zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were disbelieved until the 19th century. His works contain the earliest known formal study of logic, studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and John Buridan. Aristotle’s influence on logic also continued well into the 19th century.

Aristotle influenced Islamic thought during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neoplatonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church. Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as “The First Teacher” and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as simply “The Philosopher”. His ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of virtue ethics, such as in the thinking of Alasdair MacIntyre and Philippa Foot.

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2. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL DIALECTIC OF ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY?

 The Essential Dialectic of Aristotelian Philosophy is:

{Forms-Organon ⇆ Organon-Forms ⇅ Forms-Forms} ↻ Organon-Organon

The Essential Dialectic of Aristotelian Philosophy is Logic-Organon, Hylomorphic-Forms, Metaphysics and the Golden-Mean Dialectic because ….

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3. WHAT IS THE COMPLETE DIALECTIC OF ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Complete Dialectic of Aristotelian Philosophy is:

{Logic-Organon ⇆ Hylomorphic-Forms ⇅ Metaphysics} ↻ Golden-Mean

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4. WHAT IS THE EQUIVALENCY DIALECTIC OF ARISTOTELIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Equivalency Dialectic of Aristotelian Philosophy is:

{Plotinus ⇆ Aristotle ⇅ Plato} ↻ Socrates

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