Descartes

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1. WHO WAS DESCARTES?

René Descartes (31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

Descartes is widely regarded the founder or father of modern philosophy. Descartes is credited as the father of analytical geometry, the bridge between algebra and geometry—used in the discovery of infinitesimal calculus and analysis. He was also one of the key figures in the Scientific Revolution.

Many elements of Descartes’ philosophy have precedents in late Aristotelianism, the revived Stoicism of the 16th century, or in earlier philosophers like Augustine. In his natural philosophy, he differed from the schools on two major points: first, he rejected the splitting of corporeal substance into matter and form; second, he rejected any appeal to final ends, divine or natural, in explaining natural phenomena.

In his theology, Descartes insists on the absolute freedom of God’s act of creation. Refusing to accept the authority of previous philosophers, Descartes frequently set his views apart from those of his predecessors. In the opening section of the Passions of the Soul, an early modern treatise on emotions, Descartes goes so far as to assert that he will write on this topic “as if no one had written on these matters before”.

Descartes’ best known philosophical statement is “I think, therefore I am” (French: Je pense, donc je suis; Latin: Ego cogito, ergo sum), found in Discourse on the Method (1637; written in French and Latin) and Principles of Philosophy (1644; written in Latin).

Descartes laid the foundation for 17th-century continental rationalism, later advocated by Spinoza and Leibniz, and was later opposed by the empiricist school of thought consisting of Hobbes, Locke, Berkeley, and Hume. Leibniz, Spinoza, and Descartes were all well-versed in mathematics as well as philosophy, and Descartes and Leibniz contributed greatly to science as well.

Descartes_Kristina

2. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL DIALECTIC OF CARTESIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Essential Dialectic of Cartesian Philosophy is:

{Rules-of-Thought ⇆ Mindbody-Dualism ⇅ Method-of-Doubt} ↻ Cogito-Ergo-Sum

The Essential Dialectic of Cartesian Philosophy is Rules-of-Thought, Mindbody-Dualism, Method-of-Doubt, Cogito-Ergo-Sum Dialectic because …

To this end, Descartes formed a method for such reasoning that he believed would offer other disciplines the same amount of certainty afforded by mathematics. This method consisted of four rules, stated briefly they are:
1. To proceed by means of doubt, to take nothing for granted, to avoid bias and prejudgment;
2. To divide the substance of the argument into the simplest parts;
3. To proceed step by step from the simple to the more complex;
4. To “enumerate” and review so as to make sure nothing is missed in the argument, and that as many sources for the correct conclusion as possible may be collated.
-Turner, 1965, p.18

3. WHAT IS THE INTERMEDIARY DIALECTIC OF CARTESIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Intermediary Dialectics of Cartesian Philosophy is:

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4. WHAT IS THE EQUIVALENCY DIALECTIC OF CARTESIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Equivalency Dialectic of Cartesian Philosophy is:

{Descartes ⇆ Kant ⇅ Hegel} ↻ Nietzsche

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