Will

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1. WHAT IS WILL?

A quality is an attribute or a property characteristic of an object.

Commonly, quality can mean degree of excellence, as in, “a quality product” or “work of average quality”. It can also refer to a property of something such as “the addictive quality of nicotine”.

Philosophy and common sense tend to see qualities as related either to subjective feelings or to objective facts. The qualities of something depends on the criteria being applied to and, from a neutral point of view, do not determine its value (the philosophical value as well as economic value).

Subjectively, something might be good because it is useful, because it is beautiful, or simply because it exists. Determining or finding qualities therefore involves understanding what is useful, what is beautiful and what exists.

Aristotle analyzed qualities in his logical work, the Categories. To him, qualities are hylomorphically–formal attributes, such as “white” or “grammatical”. Categories of state, such as “shod” and “armed” are also non–essential qualities (katà symbebekós). Aristotle observed: “one and the selfsame substance, while retaining its identity, is yet capable of admitting contrary qualities. The same individual person is at one time white, at another black, at one time warm, at another cold, at one time good, at another bad. This capacity is found nowhere else… it is the peculiar mark of substance that it should be capable of admitting contrary qualities; for it is by itself changing that it does so”. Aristotle described four types of qualitative opposites: correlatives, contraries, privatives and positives.

John Locke presented a distinction between primary and secondary qualities in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. For Locke, a quality is an idea of a sensation or a perception. Locke further asserts that qualities can be divided in two kinds: primary and secondary qualities. Primary qualities are intrinsic to an object—a thing or a person—whereas secondary qualities are dependent on the interpretation of the subjective mode and the context of appearance. For example, a shadow is a secondary quality. It requires a certain lighting to be applied to an object.

2. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL DIALECTIC OF WILL?

The Essential Dialectic of Will is:

{Logos-Nous ⇆ Nous-Logos ⇵ Logos-Logos} ↻ Nous-Nous

3. WHAT IS THE INTERMEDIARY DIALECTIC OF WILL?

The Intermediary Dialectic of Will is:

{Nous ⇆ Mythos-Logos ⇅ Eros-Agape} ↻ Telos

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4. WHAT IS THE COMPLETE DIALECTIC OF WILL?

The Complete Dialectic of Will is:

{Will ⇆ Energy ⇅ Power} ↻ Force

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