Husserl

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husserl

1. WHO WAS HUSSERL?

Edmund Gustav Albrecht Husserl (8 April 1859 – 27 April 1938) was a German philosopher who established the school of phenomenology.

In his early work, Husserl elaborated critiques of historicism and of psychologism in logic based on analyses of intentionality. In his mature work, he sought to develop a systematic foundational science based on the so-called phenomenological reduction. Arguing that transcendental consciousness sets the limits of all possible knowledge, Husserl redefined phenomenology as a transcendental-idealist philosophy.

Heidegger was Husserl’s most famous and important student. Husserl and Heidegger moved apart during the 1920s, which became clearer after 1928 when Husserl retired and Heidegger succeeded to his university chair. In the summer of 1929 Husserl studied carefully selected writings of Heidegger, coming to the conclusion that on several of their key positions they differed: e.g., Heidegger substituted Dasein [“Being-there”] for the pure ego, thus transforming phenomenology into an anthropology, a type of psychologism strongly disfavored by Husserl.

Husserl’s most important work Ideen was published in 1912. Before beginning Ideen Husserl’s thought had reached the stage where “each subject is ‘presented’ to itself, and to each all others are ‘presentiated’ (Vergegenwärtigung), not as parts of nature but as pure consciousness.” Ideen advanced his transition to a “transcendental interpretation” of phenomenology, a view later criticized by, among others, Jean-Paul Sartre.

In Ideen Paul Ricœur sees the development of Husserl’s thought as leading “from the psychological cogito to the transcendental cogito.” As phenomenology further evolves, it leads (when viewed from another vantage point in Husserl’s ‘labyrinth’) to “transcendental subjectivity”. Also in Ideen Husserl explicitly elaborates the eidetic and phenomenological reductions.

Husserl’s thought profoundly influenced the landscape of 20th-century philosophy, and he remains a notable figure in contemporary philosophy and beyond.

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2. WHAT IS THE ESSENTIAL DIALECTIC OF HUSSERLIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Essential Dialectic of Husserlian Philosophy is:

{Eidetic-Reduction ⇆ Phenomenology ⇅ Consciousness} ↻ Transcendental-Subject

The Essential Dialectic of Husserlian Philosophy is the Eidetic-Reduction, Phenomenology, Consciousness, Transcendental-Subject Dialectic because ….

3. WHAT IS THE INTERMEDIARY DIALECTIC OF HUSSERLIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Intermediary Dialectic of Husserlian Philosophy is:

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4. WHAT IS THE COMPLETE DIALECTIC OF HUSSERLIAN PHILOSOPHY?

The Complete Dialectic of Husserlian Philosophy is:

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1.1 “Phenomenology is dialectic in ear-mode – a massive and decentralized quest for roots, for ground.” – Marshall McLuhan
1.2 “Phenomenology is a presuppositionless philosophy which holds consciousness to be the matrix of all phenomena, considers phenomena to to be objects of intentional acts and treats them as essences, demands its own method, concerns itself with prepredicative experience, offers itself as the foundation of science, and comprises a philosophy of the life-world, a defense of Reason, and ultimately a critique of philosophy” – Maurice Natanson. Edmond Husserl: Philosopher of Infinite Tasks pg 19
1.3 “Phenomenological philosophy is but developing the mainsprings of old Greek philosophy, and the supreme motive of Descartes. They have not died.” – Edmond Husserl Phenomenology no. 37
1.4 “The general discussion concerning essence and the science of essences in contrast with fact and the science of facts, which we have undertaken by way of prelude, concerned essential foundations for our construction of the idea of a pure phenomenology (which, indeed … should become a science of the Essential Being of things), and for understanding its position in regard to all empirical sciences, and thus to psychology. But – and much depends on this point – all determinations of principle must be correctly understood. In developing them, and we would stress the point fairly firmly, we have not been arguing academically from a philosophical standpoint fixed in advance, we have not mad use of traditional or even of generally recognized philosophical theories, but on lines which are in the strictest sense fundamental have shown up certain features, i.e., given true expression to distinctions which are directly given to us in intuition. We have taken them exactly as the they there present themselves, without any admixture of hypotheses or interpretation and without reading into them anything that might be suggested to us by theories handed down from ancient or modern times. Positions so laid down are real “beginnings”; and when, as in our own case, they are of a generality that covers the all enveloping regions Beings, they are surely fundamental in a philosophical sense, and belong, themselves to philosophy, But we do not need to presuppose even the last-named; our previous reflexions have been, all that are to follow should be, free from every relation of dependence on a “science” so contentious and contemptible as is philosophy, In the unsentimental position we have set up we have presupposed nothing, not eve the concept of philosophy, and we intend to hold on to this policy henceforth.” – Edmond Husserl Ideas section 18 Paragraph 1

Edmund Husserl: “There is none the less a remaining duality in the concept of knowing or knowledge. Knowledge in the narrowest sense of the word is the being inwardly evident that a certain state of affairs is or is not, e.g. that S is P or that it is not P. If it is evident that a certain state of affairs is probable to this or that degree, then we have k  nowledge in the strictest sense of such a probability, but, in regard to the being of the state of affairs itself, and not of its probability, we only have knowledge in a wider, modified sense. It is in this latter sense, with an eye to degrees of probability, that one speaks of a greater or lesser degree of knowledge. Knowledge in the pregnant sense – its being quite evident that S is P – then counts as the absolutely fixed, ideal limit which the graded probabilities for the being-P of S approach asymptomatically.”

Edmond Husserl: “The most general Idea of a Theory of Manifolds is to be a science which definitely works out the form of the essential types of possible theories or fields of theory, and investigates their legal relations with one another.”